Babel No More. The Search for the World's Most Extraordinary Language Learners
Babel No More by linguist Michael Erard won’t teach you how to learn a new language, but it will certainly motivate you to “apply the seat of your pants to the seat of your chair”, grab that grammar book and dictionary, and start learning. Scattered throughout the book are a few pointers given by various hyperpolyglots (in the book the term was used for people who knew at least eleven languages) and at the back of the book are two pages with answers from an online survey in which Michael Erard asked people for their top three methods for learning languages.
But this book is mainly a trek across the globe and into the past in search of historical and living hyperpolyglots. There’s the Italian Cardinal Giuseppe Mezzofanti who was said to speak 72 languages in the 19th century, the cranky German diplomat, Emil Krebs (1867 – 1930), who was said to know over sixty languages, and the Hungarian translator Lomb Kató (1909 – 2003) who at 86 years of age was learning Hebrew as her seventeenth language, and a multitude of other interesting characters.
The most effective way to learn a language is to use it as much as possible. Speaking is preferable. But what if there’s nobody around to talk to in your new language? Or if you simply don’t like the thought of skyping with strangers in order to practice? My primary objective in learning Swedish is being able to read. This may change at some point, but it’s what I’m concentrating on at the moment.
In March I bought a Swedish magazine and – being opimistic – Häxan by Camilla Läckberg. (English translation: The Girl in the Woods)
I had practiced about 20 hours of Swedish when I started trying to read the magazine. Normally I never buy magazines because they are filled with advertisements, most of the articles are too short and rather trivial, and when I’m finished reading, the magazine gets tossed or given to a friend.
But funnily enough, the very reasons I don’t buy them make them a perfect language learning tool!
You can highlight words and phrases and jot notes onto the pages. I don’t do this with books. Ads are a great way to learn important new words like ‘anti-rynkkräm’ (anti-wrinkle cream), fuktighetsgivande (moisturizing) and stiliga stövletter (stylish ankle boots). Short trite phrases and loads of photos make it easy to understand what’s meant. I literally read the entire magazine, ads and all and I doubt there’s another woman out there who has spent so many hours poring over this particular issue of Femina! There’s a huge range of subjects to learn vocabulary from because these are frequently used words and phrases, you can see how sentences are structured, and the grammar is fairly simple and up-to-date. (Remember, you should probably not look for the equivalent of The Economist right in the beginning!) Specialty magazines would be fun to use too – sailing, outdoor, equestrian, cooking, and so on, if you are interested in a particular subject and want to learn the related vocabulary.
The reason I haven’t posted anything for ages is because I have spent the past 3 months obsessed with re-learning Swedish. After learning it nearly thirty years ago, I haven’t used it since, so maybe re-learning isn’t the right word. At the beginning it felt like I was starting nearly at square one again. Regarding the brain in general, there’s the saying „use it or lose it“and this applies especially to languages. If you don’t work at maintaining what you’ve learned, it will gradually rust away. So why Swedish?
Because I was irritated with myself for having let it rust away. Last time I moved, I found Tove Jansson’s Bildhuggarens Dotter and realized that I had been able to read it once upon a time, but was no longer able to do so, and it’s not even a very complicated text.
For some reason I had always believed that I don’t have the self-discipline to teach myself a language, that I’d always need a classroom to learn. And now I live in a place where there are no suitable language classes close by. So I plan on proving myself wrong!
My goal is to be able to read Swedish novels in Swedish by the end of 2018. I must have at least 50 books on my shelves that have been translated from Swedish into English or German, and I have decided that if I want to re-read them, I will do so in Swedish.
From Here to Eternity.
Traveling the World to Find the Good Death
By Caitlin Doughty
From here to Eternity felt like perfect travel reading for a trip to Helsinki in March to attend a memorial service.
The author, Caitlin Doughty, is a mortician who runs a non-profit (!) funeral home called Undertaking in L.A., and she has written a witty and thought-provoking book about funerary customs around the world and through history. What she describes here is not even remotely like the customs I have experienced in the USA, Germany, or Finland. She has traveled to Indonesia, Belize, Bolivia, Mexico, Japan, and Spain to see how other cultures take care of their dead. And maybe those are the key words here. We don’t take care of our dead. As soon as somebody dies, they are handed over to a funeral home, i.e. a company, because we wouldn’t know what to do anyway. We haven’t learned anything about this.
Contrast this with the place in Indonesia which she visited, where the dead are kept in their families‘ homes for the period of time between their death and the funeral. (This can range from several months to several years!) There are descriptions of an open-air pyre in Colorado, a facility in North Carolina which is experimenting with turning bodies into compost, an un-embalmed natural burial in California (I’ve often wondered why all burials aren’t like that, it seems much more natural), a hypermodern funeral home in Barcelona, a high-tech columbarium (building which stores cremated remains) in Japan, and ñatitas (human skulls or mummified heads) in La Paz, Bolivia which are revered and thought to be able to grant certain favors.
My favorite ritual is the Días de los Muertos celebrated in Mexico. I wish we had something similar here. I love the idea of going to the cemetery in Helsinki with my whole family, bringing food, drink, and candles, decorating the place with bright flowers and hearing a band playing in the background. I’m pretty sure my aunts would be pleased by the idea too. The cemetery officials in Helsinki probably less so…
Despite the subject matter, From Here to Eternity is anything but a somber and morbid read. It’s written with a healthy and lively dose of dark humor and I hope it gets translated into many languages! After all, it’s a subject that affects each and every one of us sooner or later, and of course reading it makes you think about your own mortality and how you want to be ‚interred‘ when the time comes.
“Finnish is sooo hard to learn!”
I couldn’t even count the number of times I’ve heard that phrase (strangely enough, mostly from people who’ve never even made an effort to find out if that is true or not.)
Well, maybe it is, but learning English has its difficulties as well, especially when it comes to colloquialisms. Here’s a link to a YouTube video of the Finnish comedian Ismo Leikola on the Conan O’Brien show in January, explaining why the word “ass” is the most difficult word in the English language. (Apparently the video has spread like wildfire!)
View these books as a mental toolkit, a compendium of ideas from philosophers, psychologists, scientists, and economists. Tools to help one make better decisions and to become aware of what sort of “thinking errors” are most common. Some ideas have been around for ages (from Seneca, Boethius, and other Stoics), but he also includes modern theories by Daniel Kahnemann, Warren Buffett, and Charlie Munger, to name just a few.
Just as you don’t need every tool in a well-stocked toolbox, you probably won’t need each one of these mental tools. I don’t agree with each and every one either, but they will certainly make you analyze how you make decisions or behave in certain ways.
Now, how cool is this? It seems I have a foreign correspondent in Taiwan!
In between hanging out at local bookstores, our lovely, intelligent, and altogether lovable niece is studying there at the moment. She is one of those rare and brave German girls who has been learning Chinese since seventh grade, and is at HSK Level 3 * now.
Harry Potter will always be one of her most-loved book series, but recent favorites include The Raven Boys by Maggie Stiefvater and Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport (which she doesn’t really need, diligent as she already is…)
* Test takers who are able to pass the HSK (Level III) can communicate in Chinese at a basic level in their daily, academic and professional lives. They can manage most communication in Chinese when travelling in China. (from: China Education Center Ltd.)
Some books hook you right from the first page.
Mies joka kuoli by Antti Tuomainen hooked me before I even opened the book, just because the premise is so unusual.
Here is a translation of the back cover of the Finnish original, so you can see what I mean:
A murderously fun thriller about love, death, betrayal, and, of course, mushrooms.
Jaakko Kaunismaa is a successful 37-year old mushroom entrepreneur who receives surprising and shocking news from his doctor: he is dying. Further tests reveal that he is the victim of long-term poisoning – in other words, somebody is murdering him, slowly but surely.
Bibliomysteries – A perfect gift for booklovers
“What treats you have in store!” – Ian Rankin
Ian Rankin’s quote on the front cover of this deliciously fat volume is so true!
Even if you’re not generally a fan of short stories, these lethal literary tidbits are perfect for long dark winter evenings. Not so hair-raising that you can’t fall asleep afterwards, and can be read when you’re alone in the house with the wind howling outside.
The stories are diverse, set in different epochs, countries, and social situations. For example, one is about a Mexican drug lord whose weakness for first editions becomes his undoing. Sigmund Freud has an uncomfortable encounter in another. A magical library changes the life of Mr. Berger in John Connolly’s story, and a private detective searches for the book carrying a dead Mafia Boss’s secrets in It’s in the Book by Mickey Spillane & Max Allan Collins. Also, book club members may not be as innocuous as one might assume…
There are fifteen short stories set in the world of books and bookstores, written by renowned authors exclusively for the Mysterious Bookshop in New York City and edited by its owner Otto Penzler. I checked out the Mysterious Press website and saw that there are many more bibliomysteries available, mainly as e-books though. I hope that Mr. Penzler will bring out a second volume of collected bibliomysteries very soon!
Murderous delights for your favorite booklovers - be sure to start with yourself!
In Helsinki I had a few hours before my flight, so I set off to explore some antiquarian bookshops. Actual shopping was not really feasible since my suitcase was already full, including six books (in my defence – three of them I’d received as gifts), Pentik bowls and towels, rye bread, and probably a kilo of chocolate among other things. But one can always just browse, right? One of the books in my suitcase was Koiramäen Suomen Historia (Doghill's History of Finland) the newest one by Mauri Kunnas – one can never be too old and jaded for these, they are great fun for kids and adults alike - and since Finland is celebrating 100 years of independence on December 6th this year, it did not seem like an option to not buy it!
Originally I’d planned to visit at least three or four second-hand bookshops, but then I walked into Kampintorin Antikvariaatti (centrally located at Fredrikinkatu 63) and I was sold.
Frankfurt has much more to offer than just a fabulous Book Fair each October. Christiane (my sister-in-law) has lived in Frankfurt all her life and she planned a perfect day on Friday before the fair.
We started off with literature/culture and toured the Goethe-House which is definitely worth a visit. This is where Johann Wolfgang Goethe was born on August 28, 1749 (supposedly just as the clock struck twelve noon). It’s a spacious house with four floors and there are nice descriptions of what each room was used for. It’s easy to picture Goethe in the writing room, hunched over his early manuscripts at the desk or standing at the high desk, his pen (quill?) scratching across the paper, line after endless line. In the library filled with leather bound volumes, Christiane and I noted that there were books in at least four different languages: German, Latin, French, and English. Goethe’s father had collected about 2,000 books in all different fields of study.
After we’d filled our minds, we needed a little something for the body; luckily, the Bitter & Zart Salon was just a few minutes walk away. Coffee and a slice of decadent dark chocolate raspberry cake worked miracles. The atmosphere is as luscious as the cakes and their adjacent shop is full of chocolaty temptations.
Anyone trying to squeeze their way through the crowds at the Frankfurt Book Fair each October would be inclined to disagree that the printed word is losing ground. For my sister-in-law Christiane and me, the annual book fair is part pilgrimage to a holy site and part intense but enjoyable work (we most certainly don’t come here to play ;-))
The Frankfurt Book Fair is huge and the first few hours are overwhelming – we’re like kids set free in Willy Wonka’s Chocolate Factory, psyched but also a little edgy. How on earth will we get through this all in just two days? “This” meaning some 7000 exhibitors from over 100 countries presenting about 400,000 titles. Of course we’re only interested in a fraction of the wares, but it takes time to get from stand to stand when you’re sharing the space with 100,000 other visitors (and this is only the approximate number of general public visitors on Saturday and Sunday. The total including the trade visitors is somewhere around 270,000 for all five days!)
Hour by hour, as our lists steadily grow, our legs and feet begin to tire, it’s too hot in the halls, I forgot to bring a water bottle, and we get annoyed with feverish fans blocking the aisles waiting for autographs from some author with rock star status. Yet it doesn't matter - I wouldn’t miss it for anything in the world! Events, interviews, author readings, a self-publishing area, indie publishers, digital media – it’s all there. But the main focus is still the printed book. This is our idea of a perfect weekend.
Each time we move, some visitor inevitably stands in front of my bookshelves with an expression of horror, imagining that it will take me days to pack all my books. Lest you think I live in an immense library, there are only about 2500 books in the house, including all the children’s and YA books – so maybe just slightly more than in the average household…
Of all the things one has to pack, books are probably the easiest. At least the physical act of boxing them up. The psychological anxieties that accompany the process of placing of all ones beloved books out of reach for a few weeks, is, of course, a whole different story. One that I have to deal with on my own, since I prefer to spend the money on books rather than on psychiatrists.*
A few months ago I gathered up enough courage to cull some books from my overflowing shelves. I was doing pretty well and had two boxes full when Michael Dirda’s Bound to Please. An Extraordinary One-Volume Literary Education caught my eye. It’s been years since I read this, so I thought I’d just page through it for a few minutes. It ended up being toted around the house for the following month because this is one of those fabulous books you can just open up to any random page and begin reading. I also had Readings. Essays and Literary Entertainments, so that soon joined Bound to Please (love the title by the way, with its triple meaning) on the coffee table and nightstand. I’m a sucker for books about books so it wasn’t long before it occurred to me to see if he’d written even more – and, oh glory, I found Browsings, which I promptly ordered. He has written more than these three books, but I do practice moderation now and then, and so did not order them all. I could not, however, resist buying William Morris. A Life for Our Time by Fiona MacCarthy, due to Mr. Dirda’s essay on the biography of this Renaissance man (in Bound to Please).
This year, summer reading around Hamburg can be summed up as follows:
When it’s warm and dry, you can read outdoors.
When it rains, you read inside.
Here are four books suitable for the backyard, the beach, or the sofa, as well as for planes and trains if you are traveling.
Narconomics. How to Run a Drug Cartel
What Big Business Taught the Drug Lords
Ebury Press 2016, 254 pages
NO…this is not a step-by-step guide to setting up your own drug cartel!
In fact, it’s quite the opposite. Tom Wainwright, a writer for The Economist, has analyzed the way drug cartels function from an economist’s point of view. Many of the strategies used in this extremely violent and profitable business are the same as those of any large company.
He starts off with the coca farmers, barely eking out a living at the lowest end of cocaine’s supply chain, and points out the similarities between the cartels and Walmart, both of which are able to dictate prices to the suppliers. This means that no matter how many coca farms are destroyed, the ones who suffer are the farmers. Retail prices are not affected enough to put off consumers, even with mark-ups of up to 30,000 percent from the price of coca to the final retail price of cocaine.
No, I’m not referring to The Game of Thrones, but to Catherine the Great & Potemkin. The Imperial Love Affair by Simon Sebag Montefiore. Granted, there are many similar elements here, but the dragons are missing…
Simon Sebag Montefiore
Catherine the Great & Potemkin. The Imperial Love Affair
Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2016, 557 pages
(first published in 2000 as Prince of Princes: The Life of Potemkin)
The book nearly flows over with nearly three-quarters of a century of battles, conquests, annexations, diplomatic missions, political intrigues, plus background information on various historical figures, all interspersed with love affairs. I couldn’t keep track of it all, nor of Potemkin’s seemingly endless parade of mistresses. He became quickly enamored, but apparently grew bored with most of them just as fast, but this didn’t pose a problem as there were more than enough women craving his attentions. Catherine, in turn, had her “favourites” (I lost track of them as well), the last one being only 22 years old (Catherine was 60 at the time!)
The Picture of Dorian Gray
We started off the New Year with me reading The Picture of Dorian Gray, one of my all-time favorite books out loud to Ralf in the evenings. It’s taken awhile to get through it, because he’s been out hunting wild boars quite often. (It just occurred to me what a sharp contrast these two activities are!)
What is it about Dorian Gray that fascinates everyone so much?
Is it the dream of youth and beauty he is able to maintain for years? Or do we all carry some secret wish within us to be able to commit sins and crimes without repercussions – at least for a time? Or is it merely a kind of voyeuristic pleasure, reading about Dorian Gray’s transformation from an innocent lad to a full-blown narcissist who has no regard for anyone but himself?
Part of the charm certainly comes from Oscar Wilde’s style. The novel feels so opulent, perhaps due to the unbridled luxury of the characters’ lifestyles. (Although Wilde does ramble on about the jewels and the tapestries, doesn’t he?) And of course it comes to life through the character of Lord Henry, with his sharp wit and cynical manner which would liven up any dinner party, even today.
Oscar Wilde is also my favorite source of quotes (with Dorothy Parker coming in a close second). There’s even a quotation about quotations from him:
Quotation is a serviceable substitute for wit. (Oscar Wilde)
So…does anyone know of a good portrait painter in the Hamburg area?
(I’m kidding – I realize I would’ve had to have this done about twenty years ago! :-D)
I’m going into hiding for the weekend (And, yes, I know – Tyrion and all the other characters would only scoff at this paltry amount of wine…)
Game of Thrones Season 6 was just released (maybe unleashed would be a better word?) on DVD and my younger son has roused my curiosity with countless cryptic comments (but zero spoilers).
This is one of those rare instances where I love (am addicted to?) the movie version and have never even read the books. Not that I don’t think I’d like them. Quite the opposite. But if I started one, I’d inevitably continue until I finished the series, and the dog would slowly starve in the meantime. My boys are old enough to feed themselves, so that part wouldn't worry me so much...
It occurred to me last night that I should find an appropriate book for Halloween.
Something horrific and truly frightening.
I’ve had H.P. Lovecraft’s Great Tales of Horror on my shelf for years, but still haven’t gotten around to reading it, so I can’t very well recommend that one. The only other book that may count as a horror novel is Heart-Shaped Box by Joe Hill which I read so long ago that I can’t remember what it was about. I’m pretty sure I liked it though. Joe Hill is also the author of Horns which was made into a movie starring Daniel Radcliffe and which I thought was very good.
Then I realized that one of the scariest books I have was right in one of my current to-read piles, one that I have been meaning to re-read for the past couple of weeks. So I picked it up last night and after about fifteen minutes, I was already breaking out in a cold sweat. This is not something for the faint-of-heart.
Since I arrived early on Friday afternoon, my sister-in-law, Christiane (the one who orders an entire laundry basket of books after each book fair – see blog post from November 25, 2015 in the German section) showed me Frankfurt. I can certainly recommend the marzipan cake at Café Mozart (Töngesgasse 23) and next time we are definitely going to the Bitter & Zart Salon on Braubachstr. 14 (https://www.bitterundzart.de/). Römerberg is worth a visit, as is the Stadel Museum located directly on the River Main.
Saturday and Sunday were spent at the Book Fair, where else? We made it to the wake-up slam on Saturday, with Micha-El Goehre and David Friedrich – the perfect way to start the day! Halls 3.0 and 3.1 were – as always – filled to the brim with visitors, so I spent a lot of time in the halls with international exhibitors and in 4.1 where you find smaller publishers and the art books. Sadly, the hall with the English language publishers had pretty meagre pickings – most of them were already packing up their wares when I arrived.
Browsing through the thick books at Gestalten was a highlight. Honestly, if one were to start collecting books from a certain publisher, well, this is probably where I’d start. (We already have one: Rock the Shack). Absolutely gorgeous. This kind of stuff literally makes my heart beat faster.
It hasn't been easy figuring out how to work a pair of awesome shoes into a book blog...
I wasn't so sure I believed in love at first sight until I spotted these in a shop in Hamburg. I tried them on and racked my brain for just one reason to buy them, but then gave up, figuring I'd be perfectly capable of finding that reason at home later on. ;-)
So the photo is here to serve as an example of inappropriate footwear for the Frankfurt Book Fair which is starting today. I will be in Frankfurt on Saturday and Sunday, logging countless kilometers, traipsing from one enormous hall to another. But not in these shoes! The Guest of Honour this year is Flanders & the Netherlands.
More about the Frankfurt Book Fair next week when I return.
p.s. - the shoes are from Navyboot Switzerland and it's Vivienne's fault, really. (See her quote on impressive clothes in the post from September 8th.)
"If you want the American dream, go to Finland."
The Nordic Theory of Everything
In Search of a Better Life
HarperCollins 2016, 333 pages
Every now and then I run across a book so excellent that it should be required reading for everybody. After a few chapters, I thought I must recommend this to all the teachers I know. And those who work in health care. Some pages later, I realized that I wanted to recommend this book to every single person I know who lives in the United States, regardless of their age, occupation, or income. Every single person is somehow affected by issues such as healthcare, child care, education, taxes, and aging. Or, more accurately, by the lack of equality in health care and education. (Nobody is actually naïve enough to believe that everybody has an equal chance at succeeding the way things are set up now, are they?)
Vivienne Westwood & Ian Kelly
Picador 2014, 417 pages
„Vivienne often wakes early and her passion and her routine is to read in bed. Most mornings she will do this for more than an hour, ….“ (p. 405)
Right. So this is about a fashion designer, but books play an important role in her life, so it all ties in nicely.
Vivienne Westwood is an inspiration, a role model, an activist, someone who obviously cares deeply about the world we live in. She not only has a sense for fashion, but also for history, for tailoring, for quality.
This is a most fascinating, well-written biography about an incredible woman. The chatty tone often made me forget I was reading and not listening to people actually talking, reminiscing, and telling funny anecdotes. Her life story is as enthralling as any work of fiction and it kept me hooked from the first page. From making distressed and punk rock clothing and dying and printing t-shirts – literally by hand – to sell in her shop on King’s Road to running this enormous fashion label, wow, did I mention how inspiring she is? :-)
(I also learned two new terms: brothel creepers and winkle-pickers.)
Here's another quote: „You have a much better life if you wear impressive clothes.“
So if you’ll excuse me now, I’m going to change into something more impressive than the jeans and Alaska Brewing Co. tank top I’m wearing at the moment. (Although I do love this top - and not only because their beer is tasty…)
As far as accessories go then, I'd say this book is a rather fashionable one. Tuck it under your arm; it’ll look better than a sequined clutch.
I just noticed that The Almost Nearly Perfect People by Michael Booth has been translated into Finnish! :-)
The title is Pohjolan Onnelat and it has been published by Docendo.
The Almost Nearly Perfect People. Behind the Myth of the Scandinavian Utopia.
Vintage 2015, 393 pages
I’d say this would be the perfect gift for your favorite Scandinavian, but you’ll probably end up keeping this for yourself.
Michael Booth is a British gentleman (read the book and you'll understand why I use this particular word!) who lives in Denmark and has traveled throughout the Nordic countries in order to take a deeper look at the societies and peoples of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Finland, and Sweden. He has interviewed politicians, historians, philosophers, scientists, artists, and Santa Claus.
This book made me laugh every few pages and I’ve spent the last couple of days reading passages out loud to the rest of my family.
And I’m not raving about this just because he writes: „I think the Finns are fantastic. I can’t get enough of them. I would be perfectly happy for the Finns to rule the world. They get my vote, they’ve won my heart.“ (Well, maybe a little...we’re all suckers for this kind of flattery, aren’t we?) It’s his unpretentious style and dry British humor combined with loads of cultural, historical, and economical information that makes this worth reading.
He tries to find out why Denmark is considered to be the happiest place in the world, gives a short description of the economic crash in Iceland and there’s a bit about elves too (they had nothing to do with the crash), and delves into how the discovery of oil has changed Norway (and explains why the country ran out of butter in 2011).
His sauna experience in Helsinki will make you (or any Finns reading this anyway) laugh out loud, as will his description of the day he decides to go about Stockholm "behaving as un-Swedishly as possible, the theory being that, by acting in diametric opposition to Swedish social norms, I would be better able to identify and observe said norms.” (So read the book and find out what happens when he crunches through a bag of chips and slurps his coke next to a ‚no eating or drinking‘ sign at the Nobel Museum, crosses the street while the light is still red, and so forth.)
After you’re done reading, you can take a couple of minutes to watch the youtube video he recommends, titled simply ‚Danish Language‘ before booking a flight to the Nordic country of your choice.
Also, I’m almost nearly sure that it’s the Scandinavians who will be most amused by this book!
After more than four months of focusing my attention on other projects, I thought it’s time to wake Bookthirsty from its self-induced coma – or is hibernation a more appropriate word? Lately I have read so many fabulous books and am starting to feel guilty about not sharing them with others.
Cold Storage, Alaska
Soho Press 2014, 294 pages
Cold Storage is a tiny town in Alaska, so small that the inhabitants have a sort of ‘sex radar’, which alerts them to who is sleeping with whom. It is home to Miles, a former Army Ranger medic who now enjoys the quiet and fishing (even though it has been years since he caught a king salmon) and who works at the local clinic, curing the locals’ ailments, both physical and mental. When Miles’ brother Clive gets out of jail and comes back home, he brings with him not only an ugly dog, but also a former ‘business partner’ who wants to track him down and kill him, and a disagreeable state trooper who begins to snoop around.
The cast of quirky characters, the amusing dialogues and surprising turns of events make this a thoroughly entertaining read. And of course the setting itself.
Graphic Arts Books 2015, 251 pages
Nobody really knows how old Old Keb, a half-Tlingit, half-Norwegian elder, is, but he has outlived his wife, his friends and his three sons and now he tired - of a lot of things - and thinks it may be time to die. When his grandson James is injured in a logging accident, losing both his chance to play in the NBA and his will to live, old Keb decides it is time to build one last canoe.
This twenty-five foot red cedar log in the carving shed soon becomes somewhat of a community project and when it is finished, Old Keb and James leave on a journey towards Crystal Bay, where the Jinkaat Tlingit came from long ago. A last journey for Keb and a reason to believe in something for James.
Lingo. Around Europe in Sixty Languages
With contributions by Jenny Audring, Frauke Watson and Alison Edwards (translation)
Atlantic Monthly Press 2015, 284 pages
How can I not advocate a book which explains why Finnish is easier to learn (to spell at least...) than English? :-)
Anybody who is interested in languages will love reading Lingo – it is a collection of essays on sixty European languages and dialects, each just a few pages long, but full of interesting facts. I thought I’d enjoy a couple of chapters daily, but ended up racing through the entire book in just two days.
Steve Hockensmith with Lisa Falco
The White Magic Five and Dime. A Tarot Mystery
Midnight Ink 2014, 326 pages
The White Magic Five and Dime caught my attention at the Frankfurt Book Fair, mainly because the cynical heroine with the smart mouth sounded like such a fun character to read about.
Alanis McLachlan hasn’t seen her mother in twenty years and now gets a message that her mother was murdered and has left a will. Alanis travels to Berdache, Arizona only to find that she has inherited a Tarot shop of all things. Highly sceptical because, after all, her mother had been a con-artist, Alanis nevertheless decides to stay long enough to figure out who the murderer was.
Like 2015, 304 pages
Norma is an unusual young woman who is suddenly left completely alone when her mother dies. Was it suicide or was she murdered?
Norma’s thick hair grows up to a meter a day and it can actually sense things. If anybody found out about this, she would be in great danger. Without her mother to protect her, she does not know who she can trust.
Norma has the key to something the Lambert family wants, of that they are sure, and they will stop at nothing to get it.
is about organized crime, trafficking of surrogate mothers and human hair, about our obsession for beauty,
all set mostly in Helsinki in a not so distant future and spiced with a splash of
Picador 2015, 273 pages
I mentioned Sasha Abramsky’s The House of Twenty Thousand Books for the hard-core bibliophiles and then Wanted! Ralfy Rabbit, Book Burglar and The Snatchabook for the absolute beginners.
So now here is something in the middle. Not just for booklovers, but for anybody who loves a great story with quirky characters.
Twelve-year old Bobby Nusku fears spending time at home. His mother is gone and his best friend has moved so when Bobby meets Rosa and her mother Val who cleans a mobile library, he also discovers books, and the summer begins to look brighter. Then things start going wrong, and the three feel their only choice is to run away – in the mobile library.
While the book is entertaining and fun to read, there is also this running undercurrent of really bad ideas kids have (including a few spine-chilling scenes), bullying, child abuse and neglect, and the effect that ignorant and nasty gossip can have.
However, along the way, Bobby, Val and Rosa befriend a stranger, have the adventure of their lives and forge themselves into a family – and Bobby discovers that stories really do happen to people like him.
And really, if one had to run away, what better vehicle to go in than a mobile library?!
I just noticed that Synkkä niin kuin sydämeni by Antti Tuomainen is now available in English.
It is titled Dark as my Heart and translated from the Finnish by Lola Rogers.
Published by Harvill Secker in October 2015.
Back when I wrote about this (October 2014), it was only available in German.
And for some reason I am unable to link this to that post, which is unusual. :-(
Here are two adorable children’s books to read out loud, and which will entertain the adult booklover just as much as the little ones. Both are stories about impossibly cute biblioklepts but they are very different and because it will be difficult to choose which one to get, sooner or later you will probably end up with both of them on your shelves…
Wanted! Ralfy Rabbit, Book Burglar
Bloomsbury 2014, 32 pages
Ralfy Rabbit is the ultimate little bibliophile – he wants to read books all the time, he dreams about them and makes lists about them. But then he begins to steal them and that’s when the trouble starts… a very funny little story!
The House of Twenty-Thousand Books
New York Review Books 2014, 327 pages
How can I not pick up a book with a title like this? If I had to sum up my feelings about The House of Twenty-Thousand Books in one sentence, it would be: I loved this book! Actually, I think I may have wanted to physically live inside it... Truly a ‘book about books’!
Sasha Abramsky has written a fabulous account of his grandparents, Chimen and Miriam Abramsky and their obsessive collecting of both books and people, and also the times they lived in. Chimen is described as a polymath and bibliophile, Miriam was very intelligent and warm-hearted and they lived in a house which was stuffed with books in every room (except for the kitchen and the bath) and a table just as fully laden with seemingly never ending platters of delicious food (do not read this on an empty stomach) and always, always, interesting company gathered around for political debate. Nourishment for both body and soul.
Here is the text from the inside jacket cover:
The fact that I haven’t posted much during the past months does not mean that I haven’t been reading.
Here are six praiseworthy books more or less devoured during the summer.
Two amazing novels by Don Winslow:
The Power of the Dog and The Cartel are sweeping complex tales of epic proportion describing the so-called War on Drugs, which of course is anything but that, because it is being ‘fought’ on the wrong fronts.
An incredible amount of research has gone into these tomes and you will read every bit of news on the subject in a different light after reading them. At
times I forgot I was reading novels, that's how authentically he writes.
Oneworld Publications 2015, 365 pages
Translated from the Russian by Lisa C. Hayden
Those who buy this book because they assume it is “Russia’s answer to The Name of the Rose”, as is printed on the cover, might very well be disappointed. Both are set in the middle ages and both fairly teem with monks, yes… But no.
And what is it with this marketing trend which tries to force every other new title into the spotlight occupied by an older bestseller anyway? Often quite misleading, and
once you’ve bought and read the book, you can hardly return it to your bookseller crying that it was nothing like The Name of the Rose, Dickens or
Borges or whatever other novel it claimed to have elements of, be the love child of, or have a new fresh take on. You’re not going to get your money back, no matter what kind of puppy eyes you make.
Kirjastonhoitaja Topi Mullo
Reuna, 2015 269 pages
Janne Nevala’s Kirjastonhoitaja Topi Mullo is an entertaining story about a young man who takes a summer job at a small library on an island. He has been left with precise instructions as to what his duties are, and these he takes very seriously (to the dismay of some of the visitors). But summer is when things happen on the island, and a veritable invasion of tourists and artists shake up Topi’s routines. A theatre ensemble ends up moving into the building, and the flamboyant actress Nika takes an interest in him. There is the beautiful red-haired cleaner, a gang of unruly boys, and a rich widow who lives in an enormous storybook mansion, to name just a few of the other characters. The tone of the book is humorous, especially Topi’s inner monologues, which often made me laugh out loud.
What? No wake-up slam at the book fair this year? What a disappointment! That was the best and most inspiring way to start each day last year.
Guest of Honor this year was Indonesia. The pavilion was divided into different ‘islands’, each with a different theme – old manuscripts, tables of colourful spices near the luscious cookbooks, a reading area and so on. Befitting
for a country composed entirely of islands (according to Wikipedia, Indonesia is spread over 17,508 islands, about
6,000 of which are inhabited!)
Dr. Jacqueline Hornor Plumez
The Bitch in Your Head.
Taylor Trade Publishing 2015, 173 pages
This one is mainly for the ladies…
Oh, so this time you actually thought I’d post a photo of some good-looking shirtless hunk, did you?
Well, sorry to disappoint you – it’s just about another book. Again… groan…
Before I start, let me say that this book is not going to magically transform your life by next week and much of what is in there, we’ve read or heard a dozen times over. Some of the advice is a bit simplistic or naïve. No, the reason I’m recommending this one is because of the basic idea here. It is something I understand well. And you will probably recognize it too.
My posts here stopped for some time, having started to question the point in keeping this up. It’s not the only thing I’ve been questioning lately; pretty much everything is being scrutinized and turned over in my mind. Except for one thing. No matter what chaotic thoughts abound, one subject always manages to poke its way to the surface as a matter of course, much like crocuses in the springtime, and that is, of course, books. Sometimes I feel like they literally anchor me to the world.
I just returned from visiting family and friends in Seattle and while there, my sister, my nephew, my younger son and I accompanied my mom on a short trip to south eastern Alaska. She has wanted to go there for years, so the trip was a birthday gift when she turned – um… when she had a birthday. Shortly before we arrived in Juneau, I looked at the mountains and passages of water through the plane window and thought to myself that should I ever move back to the USA, I would move to Alaska (note that we hadn’t even landed yet…)
Books and Islands in Ojibwe Country
National Geographic Directions 2003, 141 pages
This is a mini road trip through islands, books, nature, Ojibwe words, traditions and myths.
To the enormous Lake of the Woods in Minnesota and Ontario with about 14,500 islands, some of which have rock paintings. And then to Mallard Island on Rainy Lake where the adventurer Ernest Oberholtzer built a number of houses and filled them with more than 11,000 books.
Louise Erdrich travels to these places with her new baby and a stack of books. She writes about her observations, teaching the reader much along the way. I like her dry sense of humor, for example as she writes about her baby picking blueberries (miinan) straight into her mouth. “I show her how. This is the one traditional Ojibwe pursuit I’m good at.”
She reads Austerlitzin a cheap roadside motel, explains a bit about the Ojibwe language (Mazina’iganan is the word for books…:-)), and deftly blends traditional and modern life, slowing down to look at and contemplate things, making everything somehow matter. I could easily begin reading this book again immediately.
Other books by Louise Erdrich that I have read are: The Crown of Columbus (written together with Michael Dorris), Tales of Burning Love, The Painted Drum, and Shadow Tag.
Auntie Mame (An Irreverent Escapade)
Originally published in 1955
I just had a lot of fun re-reading this truly irreverent novel!
When ten-year old Patrick is orphaned, he is sent to live with his only living relative, Auntie Mame in New York. Flamboyant, impossibly wealthy and able to “charm the birds off the trees”, Auntie Mame chain smokes, drinks like a fish and is quite possibly the funniest aunt that I have read about. She dives headlong into new experiences, changing manners, diction and wardrobe, from an Irishwoman in tweeds to a southern belle, to suit the situation, and always at the center of attention. But she does take care of the boy, and starts off with his vocabulary, giving him a pad and pencil so that he can write down words he hears but doesn’t understand. Soon thereafter, he has words like daiquiri, narcissistic, Biarritz, psychoneurotic, and relativity on his list.
Thoroughly entertaining and not nearly as ‘fluffy’ as it may sound.
The first chapter can be read on the publisher’s website: http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/39555/auntie-mame-by-patrick-dennis/
The Serpent and the Rainbow. A Harvard Scientist’s Astonishing Journey into the Secret Societies of Haitian Voodoo, Zombis, and Magic
Simon & Schuster 1985, 267 pages
I can’t even remember how this book got onto my to-read list. I’m certainly not a fan of zombie books or movies. World War Zis the only one I’ve watched - that I can think of.
Standing in front of the Fiskars Gardening Tools at the local hardware store with my younger son a few years ago, I did get a lesson in how useful these high-quality axes, hedge shears, garden forks, spades and so forth would be in the face of a zombie apocalypse, though…
Un viejo que leía novelas de amor
First published in 1989
(English: The Old Man Who Read Love Stories)
I can’t remember the last time I read a book this intensively. Probably never.
I enrolled in a second Spanish class taught by my teacher, solely because I heard they were reading this novel together. All of the other students are a couple of levels higher than I am, and I had to read through each chapter carefully at home, sometimes having to look up every other word (even though many translations are already given in this Reclam version especially for students) or puzzling over sentences for minutes on end, until I finally figured out – at least in most cases – the meaning.
It was slow going. But worth it. I loved it. Both the book and
the experience. Of course you can do this on your own without a class, but I don’t always have the self-discipline to do this on a regular basis without that little extra nudge of having to
prepare for class.
I haven’t posted anything for ages and have a couple of excellent reasons for that (see photo) plus any number of super lame excuses… So I'll change the subject. How about books?
What is the most important thing to consider before leaving on a trip?
Exactly... How many and which books to pack. (Obviously. That was too easy.)
Wsoy 2013, 236 pages
Pietari Kutila leaves a shelf of old pipes to his daughter, and to each pipe there is a story about its owner. In his letter he says that up to this point (1945), he has told stories about war and the fear, the pain and the distress suffered by people torn from their homes. But, he writes, there are other tales as well…
And so we are swept away to African slave ships, the favelas in Rio, the Volga, St. Petersburgand Berlin. Each story is separate, yet they are all tied together like pearls on a string. Exotic, erotic, colourful tales encompassing the whole range of human emotion and behaviour from the most despicable to the altruistic and loving, Ín turns, bold, magical and horrifying.
Perfect. This book easily became a favourite and now I am looking forward to reading Katja Kettu’s novel The Midwife, which was published in 2011.
For more Finnish books click here.
Tunnel in the Sky
Pan Books Ltd, 1968, 222 pages
Rarely do I read Science Fiction novels, but Ralf brought this one home from a business trip last month and I was curious; one of his customers had lent it to him after some conversation they’d had about The Knowledge by Lewis Dartnell.
First published in 1955, Tunnel in the Sky takes place in a future where people travel to other planets easily enough through special gates.
Rod is a senior in high school and his final examination in Solo Survival takes him to an unknown planet for up to ten days. But something goes wrong and the exit gate back to Terra never appears. Rob and the other students stranded on the planet are left to their own devices for an indefinite amount of time. They must hunt, find water, build shelters and – as their group grows in number – build a society, which is not an easy task.
Robert Heinlein wrote 32 novels and 59 short stories in his lifetime, in addition to other works!
John le Carré
A Most Wanted Man
Hodder & Stoughton 2008, 340 pages
This week I took A Most Wanted Man from my shelf in order to read the book flap and skim through the book, just briefly, mind you, to bring back to mind what it was all about, as I plan to watch the movie this weekend.
Well, I read the first few pages, then the first chapter, and because all was quiet in the house, I kept on reading, and once you’re in, you’re in…
(And yes, my first words after seeing the movie will probably
be: The book was much better than the movie. But it was filmed in Hamburg.)
Gummerus 2007, 399 pages
English: The Limit (translated by Lola Rogers)
German: Die Ruhelose (translated by Elina Kritzokat)
Anja, a 53-year old professor of literature, has promised her husband that she will help him die when Alzheimer has destroyed his memory. Feeling unable to keep her promise when this does happen, she obtains enough sleeping pills for her own suicide.
At the same time, Anja’s 16-year
old niece, Mari, who spends a lot of time thinking about her own death and how people would react to it, has fallen in love with her Finnish teacher and they begin an affair - an all-encompassing
obsession for Mari and an erotic diversion for Julian. Julian’s six-year old daughter Anni observes the sometimes odd behaviour of the adults around her while knowing when to keep silent about
what she sees.
Famous Writers I have Known
W.W. Norton & Company 2014, 311 pages
Imposters. Felix Krull by Thomas Mann springs to mind immediately, as does the movie Catch Me If You Can. And Patricia Highsmith’s Tom Ripley, of course!
Fascinating protagonists in any case. No matter what else happens in the story, there is always the danger of being found out, so there is this hidden current of suspense in even the most banal encounters.
New Finnish Grammar
(translated by Judith Landry)
Dedalus, 187 pages
Neue Finnische Grammatik, the German title of this novel, caught my eye at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October. How could it not?!
In Finnish to know is tietää, and tie means road, or way. Because for us Finns knowledge is a road, a path leading us out of the woods, into the sunlight, and the person who knew the way in the olden times was the magician, the shaman who drugged himself with magic mushrooms and could see beyond the woods, beyond the real world. It is of course true there is more than one possible path to knowledge, indeed there are many. In the Finnish language the noun is hard to lay hands on, hidden as it is behind the endless declensions of its fifteen cases and only rarely caught unawares in the nominative. (p. 56)
Scribner 2014, 320 pages
This one caught my eye at City Lights in San Francisco – maybe it was the picture of the Golden Gate Bridge disappearing into the fog; maybe it was the words on the front cover (“Takes place in the twilit world of noir, where people and things are never what they seem.” – NY Times Book Review). At any rate, I read the back cover, noted that it was set in S.F. and knew that I had to read it.
Family, books and wine pretty much sums up our visit to San Francisco and Santa Rosa in December. What more could one want, really?
Immediately after arriving, we all went to prison for a few hours, but even there I was able to find literary material for the website… The Alcatraz prison library had a collection of over 10,000 books when it was in use.
(The prospect of a well-stocked prison library is still no reason to commit crimes…)
Jack London. An American Life
Farrar, Straus & Giroux 2013, 384 pages
This biography is just as exciting to read as the stories written by the subject of the book!
Born in San Francisco in 1876, Jack London was always on the lookout for an adventure. Long hours working at a cannery, a short stint as an oyster pirate (after which he was hired by the California Fish Patrol), hiring onto a sealing schooner which sailed to Japan, tramping across the US, including thirty days spent in jail, and an expedition to the Klondike during the Gold Rush (bringing back ‘nothing but scurvy’), for example, all by the age of 25.
Famous during his lifetime and while earning large amounts of money, he also spent lavishly, so was often strapped for cash.
He maintained a strict writing schedule, putting down 1000 words each day no matter where he was: sailing on the Snark to Australia, the South Seas and Hawaii or building a lavish mansion which burned down shortly before he was due to move in.
His relationships with his first wife and two daughters and his second wife and ‘soul-mate’ Charmian Kettridge and various other family members and friends were at times equally dramatic.
An incredibly adventurous life well told by Earle Labor!
Writers Tears Whiskey
I first saw this whiskey at a Medieval Fair near Hamburg in September (there was a little whiskey bar there, which seemed to be doing good business), and - because of the name - I had to order a
bottle, which has since been opened, tasted and found to be good...
Faulkner said "there's no such thing as bad whiskey. Some whiskeys just happen to be better than others." and "I usually write at night. I always keep my whiskey within reach, so many ideas that
I can't remember in the morning pop into my head."
Google comes up with over seven million hits when one searches for 'writers and whiskey', so one could literally read about this subject for hours...
The Stars’ Tennis Balls
Arrow Books 2011, 436 pages
On the inside of the book there is this quote from Mail on Sunday
‘My goodness what fruity language Fry uses! You can feel his enjoyment, and also the huge force of his desire to please you, as you read this.’
He certainly pleased me very much with this extremely entertaining novel!
It is 1980 and young and handsome Ned, athletic, popular, and madly in love with Portia, lives in what seems to be a flawless world. His perfect life is, however, annoying to a few of his peers, who decide to play a practical joke on him, which in turn leads to devastating consequences for Ned. As a result, he ends up locked away in a mental institution on an island for the next twenty years.
BUT, he meets an interesting friend there who teaches him many things, and after his death, Ned manages to escape. The book would have been even better had Ned's revenge on everybody been more psychological and less physically violent, but still, it is just the kind of story you cannot put down once you have started reading.
(And yes, this is a contemporary version of The Count of Monte Christo!)
The Rise & Fall of Great Powers
Sceptre Books 2014, 372 pages
When we first meet Tooly Zylberberg, it is 2011 and she is the owner of World’s End, a bookshop near Hay-on-Wye. A message from her former boyfriend, Duncan, puts her on a plane back to the US.
The novel bounces between 1988 when Tooly was ten years old and living in Bangkok with her father, 1999 in NYC where she meets Duncan, and 2011 when she travels back to NYC to figure out why her life had been as it was, and who all of these people really were.
Eccentric and lovable characters (most of them) trying to find their places in this world in rather unorthodox fashions (not all of them commendable…you’ll know what I mean after you’ve finished the novel…) combined with frequent references to literature made this novel an immediate favourite. But don’t just listen to me. Here’s what Humphrey has to say (This is the back cover of the novel!):
Nicholas D. Kristof & Sheryl Wudunn
Half the Sky. How to Change the World
Virago Press 2010
This book certainly raises awareness about a myriad of atrocities committed against women all over the world.
It is not easy to read about how horrific human beings can be to one another, and most of these daily acts of violence merit little space in the daily news.
The authors describe the suffering in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and various African countries graphically, writing about women who have endured brutality beyond imagination, but who have managed to fight their way out and up, and so have become role models for others. They also write about workers who have devoted their lives to these causes and about the importance of educating women.
Sex trafficking and forced prostitution are more widespread than I had imagined - the numbers here are staggering. Gender based violence such as honor killings and mass rape are focused on as well.
It seems a bit strange to thank somebody for giving one a gift which ends up making one’s blood boil, but this book may just be the exception to that... Danke, Sabine!
This particular subject is so long (in multiple ways), I could probably write an entire book about it.
But I’ll start off with lists of books made at the Frankfurt Book Fair.
I thought I was being quite particular and jotting down the titles of only the most
interesting sounding titles I came across, adding a total of 84 titles to my “buy and read list”, when it would have been so easy to add hundreds. Twenty of these were Finnish originals, mainly
because I spent so much of my time poring through Finnish books this year.
There is a certain phenomenon I experienced very strongly at the Frankfurt Book Fair this year, regarding a category of books which I will call (for lack of a catchier term) “books I would love to like”.
I’d read about them in advance, saved little clippings about them and was completely open and prepared to be bedazzled by their brilliance.
If one can speak about lusting after the written word after having been seduced by clever book jacket blurbs, book reviews or the aesthetics of the cover and title itself, then this was it.
Johnny Kniga 2014, 301 pages
Normally I wouldn’t pick up a book with the words ‚romantic tragicomedy’ on the cover, but since this one takes place in Muonio in Finnish Lapland, I
figured it wouldn’t be your average fare.
Katja is from Helsinki and her husband Asla is a Sami clothing designer in Muonio. Katja has lived in Muonio (200 km north of the Arctic Circle in Lapland) for only nine
months and as the newly appointed municipal manager in Muonio, has been given the task of uniting the municipalities of Muonio and Enontekiö into one. Reindeer herders in Enontekiö, chiefly her
father-in-law Piera, despise both her heritage and her plans.
Synkkä niin kuin sydämeni
Like 2013, 302 pages
Sonja Merivaara disappeared mysteriously twenty years ago. Her son Aleksi Kivi is certain that the wealthy businessman, Henrik Saarinen, had something to do with it and because the police never solved the case, he is now determined to take matters into his own hands. Finding a way to get close to Henrik Saarinen wasn’t overly difficult, but he hadn’t reckoned with Henrik’s beautiful and spoiled daughter… A gripping story about obsessions, revenge, and loneliness set in Helsinki and a mansion by the sea.
This novel made the train ride from Hamburg to Frankfurt seem very short!
Synkkä niin kuin sydämeni seems to be available only in German translation so far. (Todesschlaf)
Antti Tuomainen is the author of The Healer (Parantaja), an immensely popular dystopian novel which has already been translated into over twenty languages.
My sister ate at this Russian restaurant in San Diego last week and sent me this link.
This has to be the funniest menu I have ever seen!
(And the food there was every bit as good as she had been hoping for as well.)
Here is one sample of a description from the menu:
Tabaka: Is not your fried yard bird. A plump and juicy fried Cornish hen is split down the middle with crisp skin is a poem of a meal on its own. Please allow 25 minutes to catch the bird, stick it under a rock, and to fry it. Like Loresha purrs, "Your mouth will be delighted like never before, with this tasty, fiery marvel from the Caucasus.”$17
All right, here is one more:
Dedushka Special: tea (tea is not vodka, you cannot drink a lot) from samovar with brandy and different jams. (S)$3.50 but no brandy (I)$5 with brandy
*Dedushka over 100 years eats in our restaurant for free - Babushka of 100 years old and up eats for free as long she promises not
to stick her nose into our lives or kitchen.
...and this part was good too...:
4 possibilities for dining sizes: Communist (priced for the people at $2.87), Socialist(S), Imperialist(I), and Anarchist(A-amount and price change daily.) Ask your server for pricing on the different sizes.
*To those paying in cash we offer a glass of free tea from the village of Gusevka or a bone for your dog to encourage
I know where I want to eat when I visit San Diego!
When one hears the word Mallorca, I would guess that books are probably not the first thing that spring to most peoples’ minds. Except to mine, and maybe yours. We spent one week there at the end of August and - after I had pared down a ridiculously high pile - I still ended up taking six books along:
If you are a Finn or if you know a Finn, you will probably be quite entertained by
this slim little volume. I certainly was!
Xenophobe’s Guide to the Finns
By Tarja Moles
Finns revel in hardship. They are at their best when circumstances are at their worst.
This little book starts off with a sort of warning which ends with these two sentences:
A Finn can get extremely angry or ecstatically happy without the use of any facial expressions or change in tone of voice. He will only wave his hands when drowning.
Tarja Moles writes about the Finns reticence, their saunas, their winters, sense of humor, language and their relationship to the Swedes:
Even in international competitions the Finns measure themselves against the Swedes. Winning is, of course, great, but beating the Swedes is even better. The Finns never tire of exulting about their victories in the 1995 and 2011 Ice Hockey World Championships, which were particularly sweet due to having beaten Sweden into second place.
I also own the Xenophobe’s Guide to the Germans and being married to a German and having lived here for over twenty years, I can say that there are a lot of truths to that one too… :-)
According to the list at the back of the book, there are guides for 30 different nationalities in this series.
The humor in these books, I must add, is not of a nasty nature. While pointing out the quirkiness of Finns for example, the (Finnish) author does it in a very – well, I would say “loving” manner if that didn’t sound so sentimentally squishy (for a Finn…)
My brother Finn sent me this wonderful link about book publishing in Iceland.
I could actually feel my heart beat faster reading about the bókatíðindi, the annual book catalog which lists about 90% of all the books published that year in Iceland and which is sent to every household. Wannahaveitnow!
Reading this article I also notice (for the first time) that there exists something called UNESCO City of Literature, because Reykjavík apparently is one. Here is their website in English:
And for bibliophiles looking to visit this small island (which has becoming increasingly interesting to me during the past hour!) it seems that April 8-12, 2015 would be the perfect time to go, no matter what the weather is. That is when the next Iceland Writers Retreat will be held and local and international fiction and non-fiction authors will be lecturing and holding workshops in Reykjavík!
All of this is almost reason enough to learn Icelandic, isn’t it?!
At the very least I should finally get around to reading something by Halldór Laxness…
There seems to be a huge number of various so-called „reading challenges“ on the Internet, a phenomenon which I am not even sure how I feel about.
“Motivate yourself to read more books” one website says. Really? More? Rabid readers don’t have a problem motivating themselves to read more. They have problems putting down their books to take care of the mundane chores in life, such as mowing the lawn, grocery shopping, laundry etc… not to mention things like washing windows or doing tax returns. Escaping reality in general… So the only challenge seems to be in finding even more time to read the ever-growing stack of books.
Mention Brazil and pretty much everybody around here will think you mean the FIFA 2014 World Cup.
When I think of Brazil however, I feel a slight tinge of guilt for not having read any Brazilian literature last summer even though Brazil was the Guest of Honor at the Frankfurt Book Fair last fall.
I remember walking around the Brazilian pavilion at the book fair and how they had these pillars of paper, glued together on one side like over dimensional notepads. Each pillar of paper was made of printed sheets dedicated to a specific character from a Brazilian book, one pillar per character, so one could walk around tearing off sheets from the pillars to take home. Each sheet has information about the character in question, the author and book, as well as a short excerpt, all in Portuguese, English and German. (see photo below)
Well, the text is probably from the books – which I have not read – but I loved this scene in Game of Thrones (Season 3, Episode 9) so much I had to post the dialogue (and watch the scene again on YouTube):
Gilly: How do you know all that?
Samwell: I read about it in a very old book.
Gilly: You know all that from staring at marks on paper?
Gilly: You’re like a wizard.
During the past week I have received two fantastic links, one from my brother Finn and one from my dad, both of which have to do with words.
The first one is a series of illustrations for words which cannot be translated directly into English – gorgeous graphics (when they are all finished they should be printed on one big poster!) and fascinating words. So far she has even included two Finnish words among them – I won’t say which ones, take a look for yourself!
The artist, Anjani Iyer has kindly allowed me to post one of the illustrations here, and so I chose the German Backpfeifengesicht, but they are all great. I've gone back to this page over and over the past few days to look at them:
Once you’re done looking at all of her works, all of you bibliophagists should read the Huffington Post article on ten words every book lover should know, so that the next time you come across an ultracrepidarian, you will have a word to describe him. Or her.
So, yesterday I was going to advise against buying anything with pink (or lavender) covers, but then remembered Marisa Pessl’s Special Topics in Calamity Physics which has a hideous pink dust jacket with roses that would be better off adorning a Victorian gardening journal or a romance (but the kind with no sex). I am only saying this because I liked the book itself, but back when I bought it, I actually thought about taking the dust jacket off and tossing it in the paper bin. I decided not to, because it is part of the book, and so I wasn’t able to destroy it. Not that I don’t like roses, but the dust jacket looks as though it had been designed by Barbara Cartland’s ghost on drugs.
Also I own A House with Four Rooms by Rumer Godden, the cover of which is pinkish, but with much more nourishing contents than the one I read last weekend.
Here is the quote regarding the title of this autobiography:
There is an Indian proverb or axiom that says that everyone is a house with four rooms, a physical, a mental, an emotional and a spiritual. Most of us tend to live in one room most of the time, but unless we go into every room every day, even if only to keep it aired, we are not a complete person.
All right, never say never, even to pink dust jackets, but do approach with caution if you are as allergic to fluffy romances as I am!
On Saturday I read a book, the contents of which were so light and fluffy that I cannot even post it in good conscience. Halfway through I was already debating just putting it aside, but did not, thinking (hoping) that something of substance was bound to come up, because after all (the only reason I bought the book in the first place) the story was set in a bookshop. But no. So I read it to the end (which did not take very long, it was such an easy read) and afterwards felt as though my brain had literally been weakened by this (like having a meal of marshmallow fluff and cotton candy), and had to resort to something with more substance, in this case reading some fifty pages of Christopher Clark’s The Sleepwalkers. How Europe Went to War in 1914, which I started some time ago but have been neglecting, in order to strengthen myself again.
(I should have known better – it had a pink cover, which generally means sappy romances, doesn’t it, no matter what else they are trying to hook me with? I should never reach for anything with a pink cover!)
Vahinko etteivät äiditkin saa lähteä milloin heitä huvittaa ja ruveta nukkumaan ulkosalla. Varsinkin äidit sitä toisinaan tarvitsisivat.
Tove Jansson (Muumipappa ja meri)
What a pity mothers can't go off when they want to and sleep out of doors. Mothers particularly, could do with it sometimes.
from Moominpappa at Sea by Tove Jansson
And what perfect timing for the arrival of these photos, it being World Book Day.
I wanted to start a photo gallery of people reading in unusual places and asked if I might have a photo of my friend Liisa's daughter Annika reading one of her favorite books on horseback. She and her friends were very creative!
Click here to see the first three photos in the gallery.
Oh to be in Barcelona today, where this all got its start and where the people obviously know how to make an event out of books.
April 23rd, Sant Jordi, or Saint George Day has traditionally been a day for roses and lovers, and men gave roses to their girlfriends or wives. Sometime in the 1920’s, a bookseller in Barcelona noted that William Shakespeare and Miguel Cervantes both died on this day in 1616 and integrated book giving into the same day. What a clever man!
If you google ‘el día del libro Barcelona’ and click on photos, you can see what a fantastic and festive atmosphere this must be, not only for bibliophiles, but for everybody. Book stands piled high with reading material, florists selling roses, everybody out in the streets, authors reading and signing books, people exchanging books and flowers, and so on.
Qué ciudad simpática! Quizas el proximo año…
Literature is the most agreeable way of ignoring life.
- Fernando Pessoa
Fernando Pessoa – Book of Disquiet
Christian Kjelstrup rented a store in Oslo for one week in March for the sole purpose of selling a book.
Yes, a book. Just one.
The Book of Disquiet by the Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa, his favourite book, “the best book in the world.” People seemed to like the idea, too, because he ended up selling more than a thousand copies and even the Crown Prince Haakon and Crown Princess Mette-Marit stopped in to buy a copy. Popularity of the book has certainly soared in Norway. One newspaper article mentioned a library which had lent out all fourteen copies of their copies of this book, with another eleven people on the waiting list!
I remembered that I had a copy of this book on my shelf and pulled it down to take a look. I can’t remember why or where I bought it or why I haven’t read it yet, but it might have been right around the time we started to build houses and move around, and this is the type of book you need to concentrate on, really pay attention to the words itself without too many distractions. At any rate, I opened it up at random last week and after reading just two pages, it became clear that even though I do not usually write in my books, I could see how this one would be the kind that gets marked up a lot.
The Book of Disquiet (Livro de Desassossego) was published posthumously in 1982 and it is not a novel in the classic sense, but rather a collection of reflections written by Bernardo Soares (one of Pessoa’s pseudonyms); the author introduced it as a ‘factless autobiography’. There are countless essays to be found online about this work, pages and pages of descriptions and comments such as ‘life-changing’. This all does make one very curious about this work, does it not?
My copy has not been reshelved; it is staying out on the coffee table to be dipped into
now and then.
Jenny, my next door neighbor, has been borrowing my Jo Nesbø crime novels, even reading The Snowman which I have only in English. However, when she got to the ninth book in the Harry Hole series, Die Larve in German, she was suddenly reluctant to take it home with her. I had to tell her over and over again that it was all right for her to read it.
There is nothing special about this particular book. Sure it’s a nice hardcover whereas the others were all paperbacks, but it has not been handwritten by Nesbø – heck, it hasn’t even been signed by him, even though I went to the reading at the Hamburger Krimifestival in 2011 (fabulous!) because I didn’t want to wait in line with three hundred hysterically chattering women, or so it seemed to me at the time.
No, the only reason she did not want to take it, was because I said I hadn’t read it yet myself, and there she was, pushing it back into my hands saying “no, you should read it first!” I had to assure her repeatedly that it was quite all right and that the book would not lose anything if she read it before I did!
I thought this was an interesting phenomenon, not to mention kind of funny/cute and it has happened a few times with other people before as well. (I doubt that I would have such scruples were I to borrow an as-yet-unread-book from someone...)
Two Singaporean Authors
Last fall Ralf was on a business trip in Singapore and my answer to his question as to what I wanted him to bring back was, of course, ‘a book by a Singaporean author’.
The Scholar and the Dragon, a novel by the Singaporean
novelist and playwright Stella Kon, was the book recommended to him at the Kinokuniya Bookstore on Orchard Road. Boon Jin is the main character and the story opens with his arrival in Singapore
from China in 1906 at the age of sixteen to stay with his uncle because he had disgraced his family in China by mixing with the wrong crowd.
Singapore was a British colony at the time and the novel provides a nice portrait of the times, showing how the different cultures either kept to themselves or meshed, depending on the situation,
and also describing how Boon Jin grew up and slowly found his own way in this bustling international city. Not only were there cultural disparities, problems also arose from the different ways of
thinking regarding tradition, which is well described in the following quote from the book:
I like to lend out my books, providing they are treated well and returned at some point. It makes my shelves seem more ‘alive’ in a way. New Finnish novels especially tend to get passed around like the treasures they are when you live somewhere else. When I lived in Pfaffenhofen, there were five Finnish women all about the same age living there, and I remember that one Leena Lehtolainen novel I owned – I can’t remember which one – was read by a total of six different people; first passed around in Pfaffenhofen and then taken to the US by my mother.
Minna Canth (1844 – 1897)
My Finnish calendar tells me it is Minna Canth Day. She was a Finnish-Swedish writer born on March 19, 1844. She wrote short stories, plays and essays, mainly about poverty, women’s rights and the problems resulting from alcoholism, all while managing a business, raising seven children alone after her husband died, and keeping a sort of salon at her house in Kuopio where writers and intellectuals liked to gather.
Her views were controversial back then and her opinions considered radical but luckily she was not afraid to express them! One of her plays, The Worker’s Wife (Työmiehen Vaimo) from 1885 tells the story of a woman whose husband drinks her money away and there is nothing she can do about it because back then, married women had no legal control over their own assets and earnings! This was changed in 1889.
According to Wikipedia, Finland was also the first country to have universal suffrage, where everyone of age had the right to vote and stand for elections (1906).
Joe Queenan writes in One for the Books that during his adult life he has always been reading at least fifteen books simultaneously and as he wrote that chapter he was reading 32!
Naturally I had to think about what I was reading at the moment and at first assumed that I was reading two books, An Angel at my Table by Janet Frame (her autobiography) and The Little Drummer Girl by John le Carré, plus Tom Nissey’s A Reader’s Book of Days which I keep on my living room table and read a few pages in now and again. But when I started to look around, it didn’t take long for me to find The Library: A World History by James W.P. Campbell which I received for Christmas and even though it is extremely large, it has been buried under a variety of other books, magazines and a newspaper clipping about the new police museum in Hamburg. It’s not the type of book one reads in one sitting, but rather piece by piece and I get easily distracted by the wonderful photos, so it’s rather slow going. Should I count the gardening book I started reading in October, but then put aside? I may as well keep it out now, since it’s already March. What about Spanisch für Büffelmuffel by Christof Kehr which is also in the living room table and which I peek into once a month or so, does that count? Or Cay Rademacher’s Der Trümmermörder which I started reading out loud to Ralf while we were driving to a dog training one weekend but has not been opened since, so we’ve only gotten to page 73? That makes a total of seven. When my kids were very young I kept a book in almost every room, so whenever I had a few quiet minutes, I could read a couple of pages without ever having to waste time looking for my book, which turned out to be an excellent strategy.
Just for fun, I googled “reading several books at the same time” and got completely sidetracked reading a few of the literally millions of entries. There is even a wikiHow article on the subject, which I thought was some kind of satire at first, but it appears to be meant seriously.
It doesn’t matter what I am searching for in the Internet, I almost always end up on the subject of books and reading, no matter how irrational the connection seems.
Last summer I googled for information on a Labrador Retriever Hunt Test which was to take place somewhere in Niedersachsen in September, but I couldn’t remember the name of the city, so I typed in JP/R (Jugendprüfung für Retriever) and the name of the town I thought it was in, but got sidetracked because the third entry in Google read Jaipur Literature Festival, which I had to click on immediately. Sounds like an enormous and spectacular event, so I found myself wondering how on earth I could find an excuse to travel to India in January. Of course I did not find any pretext to do so, but for a few minutes, just the prospect felt exhilarating, and who knows, perhaps one day…
(It is advertised as the world's largest free literary event and will take place again January 21-25, 2015) And I did find the location of the Hunt Test but
not until a few weeks later.
When you’ve been reading a detective series for a long time and a new book is published, it really is not an option not to read it.
When I received the latest Maria Kallio novel from Liisa last fall, it was clear to me which book I was taking on the train to Frankfurt. Rautakolmio is the twelfth book in the Maria Kallio series and I first began reading them in 1995 when her third novel Copper Heart (Kuparisydän) was published. So, I really hate to admit this, but this series has been part of my life for the past nineteen years. After so long, it almost feels like a duty – albeit a pleasant one – to keep on reading, to find out what your heroine is going to do next.
It just occurred to me that many people might know more about what the heroine of their favourite series thinks and does than they know about their own friends and family members, as one reads about them trying to juggle family and career, sees what is happening in her relationships and what secret thoughts she has (which she in turn does not share with her friends and family) and so her life may seem more familiar than that of those in one’s real life.
After all this time, it wouldn’t feel right to stop reading the series and besides, the plots are interesting, there are always new characters and she’s honed her craft. You know exactly what you’re getting into when you curl up on the sofa and open to the first page. It’s a comfortable anticipation. In Maria Kallio’s case, the heroine ages along with the author and along with me.
Funnily, such books also tend to get put on top of the (already teetering) book pile, as though by having been a part of your life for so long, the author has achieved a VIP status allowing his or her books to pass up the line of newer arrivals. Kind of like the frequent flyer status from airlines…
Leena Lehtolainen has a new trilogy with an exciting female character, Hilja Ilveskero, a bodyguard who lives in Finland but has been trained in the U.S.
Just went to my bookshelf and counted that I have eighteen books by this author: twelve Maria Kallio novels, the bodyguard trilogy and three other novels (Kun luulit unohtaneesi, Luonas en ollutkaan and Viimeinen kesäyö)
For more information on her books in English:
Received an interesting E-Mail from my friend Helena in response to my piece on reading out loud.
She told me that a therapist recommended reading and singing to children and avoiding audio books as much as possible. Apparently there is a different neurological process going on when a person is read to by a person, and which also affects the vocal cord vibrations of the listener.
This sounds like a very interesting research subject, and one on which there is very little information to be found.
Obvious differences between audio books and reading out loud are the physical ones. When my boys were younger, I read to them on the sofa, one on each side of me. Or at bedtime, we would all sit on my bed leaning against the headboard, legs stretched out. Spending time together, listening to a familiar voice. You can stop anytime to explain a word or turn of phrase, read an exceptionally funny passage over and over and look at the pictures together. It’s a ritual which encourages them to page through books on their own as well.
It’s possible that I read out loud so much because I was not good at playing with small children. Pushing toy cars around with them bored me silly as do most board games. So, when we were not outside doing something, we read. Mauri Kunnas was our number one choice for years and years. We have a sizeable collection of his books – most of them, except only perhaps the latest few – and they were all much loved and much read, as much fun for adults as they are for children.
Alexander started reading seriously on his own as a result of our reading rituals. I was reading the fifth Harry Potter book (Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix) out loud in Finnish, but I read only every other night. Max was starting to get tired of this series (maybe he was too young to understand everything) and so every other evening I read from the book he wanted to hear. Of course, this was way too slow for Alexander – he wanted to know what happens next and, since patience is not one of his virtues, one day he took the book and began reading it from the beginning, got up to where I had stopped reading and, well, he just did not stop. He was eight at the time. After that, he asked for the Harry Potter books in German and began over from book one. This is also the reason why we own these books in three different languages. I read them in English, the Finnish translations were for reading out loud and Alexander read them I don’t know how many times in German.
When they got lazy about reading or starting a new book, I’d pick one up and begin reading it out loud after lunch or dinner, and then stop just when the story was particularly exciting, saying that if they wanted to know what happened next, they would have to read it themselves. More often than not, their hands would dart out faster than a striking rattlesnake and whoever grabbed it first would disappear into his room to read.
I'm not even sure how old they were when I stopped reading to my boys on a regular basis. Ralf
used to laugh at me and ask if I was planning on reading to them until they were 18. (Of course this was before I read Der Schwarm out loud to him...) And yes, I would gladly read to them if they
still wanted me to. But books have largely been replaced by computer games, YouTube, Facebook, smartphones, and the like.
After visiting Dinosaur National Park in Utah sometime in 1997, Ralf and I were making our way back up to Seattle through Wyoming and Montana, which meant a lot of driving. Generally I am not fond of idle chatter, but eight hours of silence in a car is too much even for a Finn.
It probably started with me leafing through the book we’d just bought (Hunting Dinosaurs by Louis Psihoyos) while Ralf was driving, finding something interesting and saying “hey, listen to this…” and before long I found myself reading the entire book out loud to him in the car.
It would take almost ten years before I read out loud to him again. We had just moved into our first (new) house and Ralf hadn’t started working on the home theatre yet. We don’t own a TV, so one night I opened up a new book on the coffee table and started reading out loud to Ralf who was stretched out on the other sofa. By the third page I noticed that his breathing sounded different – like that of a person sound asleep. But a couple of evenings later, I started again on page one and somehow ended up reading the entire novel out loud to him in the evenings after the kids were in bed. It must have taken us three months to finish it - all 998 pages of Der Schwarm by Frank Schätzing. (The Swarm. A Novel of the Deep in English).
Last March we were in Lapland and since I had booked our trip too late, we did not get a place in the night train on our return trip and had to drive the 1000 km back from Jerisjärvi to Helsinki. Then there is the 26 hour boat trip between Helsinki and Travemünde in both directions. So, since Ralf had never read The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien, I thought he should hear the story at least once before we watched the movie. Our teenage boys listened as well, actually taking out their earphones and turning off their music to hear about Bilbo’s adventures, even though they already knew the story. The last chapters had to be finished at home after the trip, and I have to admit that this is one of my favourite images of my family – all clustered together in the living room after dinner or a Sunday afternoon, listening to a story… (It’s such a rare thing these days.)
The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time by Mark Haddon is another one read out loud. I remembered having had read it many years ago and enjoying it. Max had won the book as part of the Bundeswettbewerb für Fremdsprachen (Foreign Language Competition) and on our way back from the competition I read the cover text out loud, causing Max to say he refused to read a book that starts off with a dog being killed. I flipped through the first few pages and informed him that the dog was a poodle, so it didn’t sound quite as awful anymore. Had the dog been a Labrador or a Husky, the book wouldn’t have stood a chance with my younger son. To prove that it was a good story, I began reading it out loud and between Uelzen and Buchholz, we made it all the way to chapter 53. Yes, that far, really. The chapters are numbered by prime numbers making the last chapter of the book number 233! Needless to say, I had to finish reading this one to Ralf too. He was fascinated by the main character, Christopher, because the story made him understand how an autistic thinks. And Max continued reading the book on his own as well.
Despite the abundance of audio books available these days, it is quite different to hear
someone next to you read out loud than to hear it on tape. Nobody in our family has ever been interested in audio books (all right, so I WAS the audio book for years...) I tried listening to some
a few times while ironing, but found myself drifting off in my own thoughts over and over again.
Johan Ludvig Runeberg was born on this day in 1804 but I must admit that the only reason I (and probably countless other Finns) remember this day so well is because of the Runeberg Tortes which are baked and available in stores at this time of the year. His wife, Frederika Runeberg, created this recipe.
Runeberg was the National Poet of Finland (although he wrote in Swedish) and (now I really should be ashamed of myself) the only work of his I know is Maamme (Vårt Land in the original, means our country) which became the National Anthem. Maamme is the first poem in The Tales of Ensign Ståhl (Vänrikki Stoolin Tarinat), an epic poem which also describes the Finnish War with Russia in 1808-1809. At the end of this war, Sweden lost Finland to Russia (1809 – 1917).
Runeberg himself was born when Finland belonged to Sweden and died when it was a Grand Duchy of Russia.
And as for the Runeberg Tortes, tying certain dishes to holidays is an excellent way to remember them!
Some people take literature extremely seriously.
For the second time in the space of a few months there has been an article in the paper about death/serious injury resulting from an argument over literature in Russia.
Apparently a discussion between two drunken men in Irbit as to which genre is more important - poetry or prose – escalated to the point where the poetry fan stabbed the one defending prose, killing him.
In September there was a similar incident in Rostov-on-Don where two men arguing about the philosopher Immanuel Kant got so worked up that one shot the other in the head. The victim survived.
Ironically, Immanuel Kant was known, among other things, for his writings on moral philosophy.
Pasi Ilmari Jääskeläinen
Lumikko ja yhdeksän muuta
Lumikko ja yhdeksän muuta is one of my favorite books and I was overjoyed to see that it has finally been translated into English so that people outside of Finland can see what a great novel it is too! Apparently it will be translated into German as well by Aufbau Verlag.
The English title is The Rabbit Back Literature Society and has been published by Pushkin Press in London. If you visit their website, you will see that they have an interesting selection of books.
I’d love to read this one a second time, but unfortunately I don’t own it, having loaned it from either the Muonio or Kittilä library while living in Finland. Which only means that I shall have to make a book-buying trip to Helsinki (um, I mean, to visit relatives of course and visit bookstores in-between…). If I don’t pack any clothing, I can bring back 23 kg of books.
Here is the English text from the Pushkin Press website:
A highly contagious book virus, a literary society and a Snow Queen-like disappearing author.
“She came to realize that under one reality there’s always another. And another one under that.”
Only very special people are chosen by the children’s author Laura White to join ‘The Society’, an elite group of writers in the small town of Rabbit Back.
Now a tenth member has been selected: Ella, literature teacher and possessor of beautifully curving lips.
But soon Ella discovers that the Society is not what it seems. What is its mysterious ritual, ‘The Game’? What explains the strange disappearance that occurs at Laura’s winter party, in a whirlwind of snow? Why are the words inside books starting to rearrange themselves? Was there one a tenth member, before her?
Slowly, disturbing secrets that had been buried come to light…
In this chilling, darkly funny novel, the uncanny brushes up against the everyday in the most beguiling and unexpected of ways.
Pasi’s Blog, some of which is in English (which is great, despite his blog comment: “…English is for me like a bagpipe in the hands of a rabbit when I try to express my thoughts with accuracy and precision.” Paints an amusing picture, though! )
A Reader’s Book of Days
W.W. Norton & Company, 2014
Am only on January 8th, but I can already tell this book will cause nothing but trouble.
My reading list will swell grotesquely, my blood pressure will go up at the thought of all the books left unread, and the bank account will suffer from overly zealous shopping sprees for books I must have immediately.
Really, I should be warning all bibliophiles to please stay away from this book. We are too weak for such temptations.
Not only does he write entertainingly about events in the lives of authors and fictional events from books for each day of the year, but he also adds recommended reading for each month, birth and death dates of authors and all kinds of other literary snippets.
Now go out and get your own copy. Of course you need to have it. I am not one for temperance when it comes to books.
An equally engrossing book, set up in the same manner is The Assassin's Cloak. An Anthology of the World's Greatest Diarists edited by Irene and Alan Taylor (Canongate Books, 2000)